Explore further However, an international group of scientists may have found a solution. The results of their experiment are published in Physical Review Letters: “Experimental Demonstration of a Quantum Protocol for Byzantine Agreement and Liar Detection.”“Instead of only three photons,” Harald Weinfurter tells PhysOrg.com, “our protocol uses four photons in a specially prepared state.” Weinfurter is associated with the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Physics in Garching, Germany, and with the Ludwig Maximilians University in München. Weinfurter worked with Sascha Gaertner, a colleague at Max Planck and Ludwig Maximilians, who did a great deal of the experimental work. Also included in the effort were Mohamed Bourennane at Stockholm University, Christian Kurtsiefer at the National University of Singapore and Adán Cabello at the University of Seville in Spain, who “came up with most of the idea,” Weinfurter says.“Our protocol allows us to find the liar between three partners sending messages,” Weinfurter continues. “It offers a verifying process that two receiving computers will cross check with each other. It is a way of solving this Byzantine agreement problem.”The problem, explains Weinfurter, comes from a story Lamport, et al. described in 1982, creating a situation that might have taken place in 1453 when Constantinople was besieged. Generals were sending messages back and forth, trying to coordinate an attack on the city. Some, for their own reasons, attempted to use false information to sabotage the others. In quantum mechanics, the problem of three-party communication also includes faulty information as messages are passed and forth. It can be difficult – almost impossible until now – to detect the faulty information and its source in a three-party quantum communication setup. This is because the required qutrits, threefold valued quantum systems, are quite difficult to generate and handle.Experimentally, it is much easier to create qubit (two-party) entangled states. Weinfurter and peers succeeded in overcoming the qutrit difficulties by setting up a system that creates four-qubit entangled states. “We use a pulsed laser, and even though you usually only get two photons, there is a reasonable possibility for four photons,” he says. “Once these are detected, they can be entangled. The state comes out of the source, more or less.”Weinfurter says that this protocol is not actually for secure communication,only. “It’s really for verification,” he explains, “so you can detect the liar.” The special state of the entangled photons is used to distribute the key used in the verification process.Unfortunately, Weinfurter admits, the setup is difficult to use in a computer. “ For use in data replication, more developments are still required.”The important thing, he insists, is that this experiment shows, for the first time experimentally, a way to defeat the Byzantine agreement problem. “For a practical quantum computing application it’s not there,” Weinfurter says. “But with new methods to create photons, we could get there soon.”Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. One of the problems plaguing classical communication is associated with what is known as the Byzantine agreement. In this problem, messages between three different parties are subject to faulty information. Quantum communication, though, has held the promise of solving this dilemma. But until now, it has been difficult to do so, even using entangled states. Quantum entanglement with notification This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Classical communication problem solved using quantum entanglement (2008, March 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-03-classical-problem-quantum-entanglement.html
Ultra-Link Processing runs on the same frequency as regular WiFi, such as that used in people’s homes to create a wireless network; the difference is in the algorithm used to hear the signal and decode it properly after it’s been degraded due to noise. Regular WiFi is generally only useful in very small areas, such as in a café or at home; outside the house, the signal wouldn’t get much farther than a couple hundred feet (60 or 70 meters) before being unrecognizable to most conventional devices. The new technology is implemented via a new proprietary chip currently being produced in Taiwan.The main application being considered for the new technology is assisting electric utilities in installing “smart grids” that will allow them to monitor power usage and to make adjustments when necessary. Currently, most such networks use technology similar to regular WiFi or unlicensed radio bands. On-Ramp is currently working with San Diego Gas and Electric under a $2.1 million grant from the DOE and has installed a test network that covers 4000 square miles, using just 35 transmission points; a network that would require some 1000 points of connectivity if traditional WiFi were used, according to an On-Ramp spokesman.On-Ramp is also working with other companies such as Shell Oil in Europe to see if its transmitter technology might be used for monitoring pressure sensors on pipelines. It also appears the technology could also be used in other ways as well, such as monitoring remote outposts, or even as a bi-directional system for transmitting simple commands to a distant machine, or one that sits in a dangerous local. Also, it would seem that the new technology could also conceivably be used to replace some systems that now rely on Internet connections, possibly making them more secure. (PhysOrg.com) — Recognizing the need for long distance WiFi, even at the expense of bandwidth, On-Ramp Wireless has unveiled a product capable of delivering WiFi up to 45 miles in an un-obscured environment. Though only capable of sending less than 5 bits of data per second, On-Ramp chief technology officer, Ted Myers says that’s not the point; he says the company’s new technology, called Ultra-Link Processing, is intended for applications that don’t need much bandwidth but could benefit from long distance wireless communications. Ruckus improves access to metro WiFi nets
More information: Japanese product pagevia Diginfo © 2011 PhysOrg.com “In Japanese homes during the day, usually, not much electricity is used, as both parents are working and the children are at school. So with solar power, there’s often excess capacity during the day. With this system, the excess capacity isn’t sold; instead, it’s used to produce stored hydrogen, another energy source, through electrolysis. Hydrogen is used because it has high energy density.” ZEEP24 was conceived for use for communities that experience power outages during disasters where the supply has been knocked out or for homes as a general emergency power supply. The ZEEP24 as an alternative power source reflects the FC-R&D mission, defined as wanting to provide as many people as possible in Japan with applications of clean and sustainable energy. In talking about the new release of ZEEP24, he pointed out that it uses a hydrogen storage alloy, developed to absorb the hydrogen. Even when the system isn’t being used, it does not consume unnecessary power. Also, he said, the system is carbon-free. In contrast with an ordinary battery, there is no carbon-induced deterioration.Devices that are powered by hydrogen have been of interest to Japanese researchers for years. Hydro-electricity is a clean source of energy, and many companies have explored ways to harness it within varied applications.Around five years ago, Tokyo Seiden worked on a hydro-powered coffee stand bearing two small tanks of hydrogen, enabling the brewing of coffee and cooked food. Michio Tatsuno of Tokyo Seiden was quoted as saying that the stand, in the event of heavy snow or earthquakes, could provide electricity for medical teams and households. The report in ITN Source also said that FC-R&D was focusing on hydrogen power to light up a miniature house. At the time, the devised power system was a combination of magnesium taken from sea water and vitamin C to generate hydrogen. Nakajima said the goal was to develop a larger version to light up a real house.As for future directions, FC-R&D is working on attaching hydrogen storage containers directly to hydrogen-powered cars. (PhysOrg.com) — A home energy system that uses water, sunlight, and hydrogen has been released by Japan’s FC-R&D. The system is called ZEEP24, where electricity is generated during the day using solar panels. Hiroshi Nakijima, FC-R&D president, in a video on DigInfo, talked about the significance of the system in making use of any excess capacity of electricity. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Enel inaugurates hydrogen-driven power station Citation: FC-R&D releases natural-energy power system (2011, September 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-fc-rd-natural-energy-power.html
Drops of water found to spring from oscillating surface faster than the surface moves More information: Huizeng Li et al. Spontaneous droplets gyrating via asymmetric self-splitting on heterogeneous surfaces, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08919-2 © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Special surface manipulation forces dropped liquids to spiral when they rebound (2019, March 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-special-surface-liquids-spiral-rebound.html Journal information: Nature Communications When a drop of water landed on the treated surface, those parts of it that struck the wettable spirals tended to stick a little before rebounding. Those that struck the parts that had been masked, on the other hand, rebounded nearly instantly, because they had been made hydrophobic. This led to “non-axisymmetric spinning forces” applied to different parts of the drop at the same time. The result was twisting of the liquid, forcing the drop to spin as it rebounded upward.The researchers created multiple swirl patterns and found that one of them forced the drop to spin at approximately 7,300 revolutions per minute. They suggest their technique might be used in hydro-energy collection efforts, self-cleaning devices or perhaps as a way to de-ice plane wings or car windshields. Most people are well aware of what happens when a drop of water or other liquid falls onto a flat surface—it rebounds in random ways, quite often making a mess. In this new effort, the researchers changed the plain flat surface to one they describe as heterogeneous, which forced the drop to spiral upward as it rebounded in very specific ways.To change the way a drop would rebound, the researchers first noted that one ineffective approach would be to wet the surface—that would only result in “plopping.” Instead, they started by coating an aluminum plate with a nonstick chemical very much like that found in cooking sprays. They followed that up by placing a mask on some parts of the surface while leaving others exposed—those left uncovered were bathed in ultraviolet light, which made them “wettable”—water dropped on it would spread more than normally before rebounding. Notably, the masks were made in whirl patterns reminiscent of pinwheels. A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China has found a way to force liquid drops to spiral as they rebound after landing on a manipulated surface. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the group describes how their method works and possible applications. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Spiders sprayed with carbon nanotubes spin superstrong webs © 2019 Science X Network Humans have been impressed by the silk made from spiders for thousands of years—so much so that a lot of effort has been put into harvesting it from spiders for use in making clothing—and in reproducing it in a lab to create new strong materials. In this new effort, the researchers focused their efforts on Darwin’s bark spiders, their silk-producing glands and the silk that is produced.Darwin’s bark spiders are a type of orb spider, which means they make their spider webs in the shape of a spoked wheel. They make the largest known orb webs of any spider, which they spin above the surfaces of streams. Prior research has shown that the spider actually makes seven different kinds of silk for use in different parts of its web. One of those silk types, called dragline, is used to build the spokes that give the wheel its strength. Prior research has shown it to be the strongest spider silk in existence. In this new effort, the researchers took a closer look at the dragline silk and the gland that produces it.The researchers found two familiar types of spindroins—types of repetitive proteins—called MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are found in many spider silks. But in the dragline from Darwin’s bark spiders, they found another spindroin, which they named MaSp4a. Study of this protein revealed that contained high quanitities of an amino acid called proline, which prior research has shown is generally associated with elasticity. The protein also had less of some of the other components found in MaSp1 and MaSp2, which made it quite unique.The researchers also found that the gland that produces the silk—the ampullae—is longer than in other spiders, perhaps providing another clue to the strength of the silk that is produced. Explore further More information: Jessica E. Garb et al. The transcriptome of Darwin’s bark spider silk glands predicts proteins contributing to dragline silk toughness, Communications Biology (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s42003-019-0496-1 Citation: New protein found in strongest spider web material (2019, July 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-protein-strongest-spider-web-material.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domain A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. and Slovenia has found a previously unknown protein in the strongest known spider web material. In their paper published in the journal Communications Biology, the group describes their study of Darwin’s bark spider silk and the glands that produce it.
Kolkata: A cooking-cum-recipe contest will be held for senior citizens at Swapno Bhor as a part of the celebration of Poila Baishakh, the Bengali New Year’s Day, which falls on next Sunday.This is the first time that such a venture has been undertaken. Swapno Bhor is the only senior citizen’s park in Bengal, where the members are involved in various kinds of activities throughout the year, which includes games, cultural programmes and launching of books. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIn addition to a lush green park which covers around 3 acres, there is a two-storeyed building that houses a library, an auditorium and a room for indoor games. Cultural shows are held regularly.Two expert chefs from Café Ekante will judge the best dishes. The participants will bring in cooked food from their homes. After the judges reach their verdict, the food items will be available for the members for tasting.There will be a special gala buffet at Café Ekante and New Town Business Club. There will be traditional dishes and dessert on offer. The food will be available from 1 pm to 4 pm and from 7 pm to 10 pm. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedOver the years, Café Ekante has come up as a major food joint and foodies from Kolkata and its neighbourhood visit the restaurant. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee was the one who had named the restaurant.There will be a special non-veg menu on offer at New Town Business Club. Traditional food will be served, along with sweets.On Poila Baishakh, a musical programme will be held in the evening. Noted singer Riddhi Bandyopadhyay will present songs composed by five great poets of Bengal, namely Rabindranath, Nazrul, Atulprasad, Rajanikanta and Dwijendralal. She will also present some of the traditional Bengali numbers. Shimul Islam, noted elocutionist from Bangladesh, will also be present at the show.
Mulk Raj Anand Center, in the Capital’s Hauz Khas Village is presenting a solo exhibition Conversation by Nityam Singha Roy . The show will go on from January 1 to 8 at the Lokayata.Nityam Singha Roy, was born in Balurghat, Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal which forms the beautiful – the lasya and the tandava or the yin and yang from the core of Nityam’s present series. The mood is that of Shringar rasa of love. His figures are lyrical in colours that are rooted in the soil but almost ethereal in their essential mood. Entrenched in the myths and folklore of Indian mythology that he imbibed through the stories recounted by his mother in childhood, led him to create his own fantasy world. He saw himself as the hero and visualized the stories that find place on his canvases till today. Frequently the human forms in is paintings are Radha, Krishna and Meera, often together in shringar rasa or love as the primary mood and timeless in appeal. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“The most interesting part of human figure is the face where I find I can show every sentiment of love and joy. I gradually develop my temperament to reflect the rasa of their leela to create more powerful and positive imagery,” says Nityam. “The struggle of my early life taught me to enjoy the pain of separation. This pain has created me a new as a painter and painting is my satisfaction. My painting reflects the love which I always searched for. My canvas becomes my language while I paint my story. I have spent a large amount of time perfecting my painting since the subjects with all the forms are always present in my dreams,” says Nityam. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHis usage of the colour red often in the form of a dot on the canvas is a veritable symbol of passion to heighten the impact of the love mood to balance the energy forces of the converging forms. Such upbringing gives meaning to the painter’s genre. As an artist he observes and paints the subtle, if ephemeral, beauty of the human form, and as such the light of a sacramental vision seeps in his work in celebration and praise. This work is not designed to arouse the horrors of life but to see the beauty in human bonding.When : January 1-8Where: Lokayata, Mulk Raj Anand Center, Hauz Khas Village